What Web Developers do (and don’t do). 12 tips from a Copywriter on things not to expect.

There’s a gap. A yawning one.

It’s right in the space between the understanding that most people have of what planning and building a website actually involves, and the realistic skillset of most web developers.

Not appreciating which skills web developers are likely to have (and therefore which they are unlikely to have), means that business owners very often end up leaving a whole lot of important decisions to people who aren’t qualified to take them and, generally, don’t want to be asked to take them or even think about them.

Later on, when the consequences of this become apparent, tidying up the mess can be both costly and time consuming.

What you get if you take your job to a ‘large’ web development firm.

If you are in a position to take your web development project to a ‘larger’ web development company, they will usually cover almost all of the tasks that you need completed, using the collective skills of their team.

This is because that team will include project managers; information architects; graphic designers; front end and back end developers; copywriters, photographers and film makers (their own or freelance); and all the tech expertise to sort out any issues related to management of your hosting.

What you get when you take your job to a ‘small’ web developer.

It’s virtually impossible for a solo developer, or even a small team, to be skilled in every area of bringing a site from ‘zero’ to ‘live’, let alone in addressing business-related questions that may need resolving.

So… you should reasonably be able to expect that a web developer will know their way around the functionalisation and formatting coding required to build a website.

Other than that, however, what your developer will or won’t be able to do, and what you should even think of asking him or her to do, is fairly random.

12 skills you’d be smart not to assume your web developer just happens to have.

1. The commercial aptitude of a Management Consultant.

Web developers are not management consultants.

If you have issues about the underlying business processes connected to your website, it’s plain foolish to invite a developer to advise on these as though he or she had consulting expertise.

Explore and resolve the issues before you go anywhere near a developer, so that you can brief the developer to build a site, the specification for which has been written in full light of those issues and your planned resolution of them.

Chance of a random web developer being able to help in this area – 0/10
Likelihood that the web developer is expecting to do this – 0/10

2. The insight of a Business Analyst.

Web developers are not business analysts.

If you find one who possesses true business insight and understanding, you are fortunate. But it’s not a skill they should be expected to have, and it’s certainly not one you would be wise to count on the quality of, should they claim to have it.

You should not begin building a site without being clear about what jobs it needs to do. It’s only by knowing this that you can work out what you actually need to build.

Deducing this is a business function, generally best carried out by a business or marketing analyst who can look at your goals, marketing plan and operational requirements, and define the site’s objectives in terms of its role within the business.

Chance of a random web developer being able to help in this area – 0/10
Likelihood that the web developer is expecting to do this – 0/10

3. The planning skills of an information architect.

Web developers are not information architects.

Though, again, you may find a developer who has some reasonable skill in this area, it would be a mistake to expect it.

In planning a site, it’s necessary to break down the information that needs to be included, and decide on navigation groupings, sets of pages within navigation groupings, and the deployment of individual items of information helpfully and sensibly within those pages.

To do this an information architect needs a very reasonable understanding of the business, as well as of its potential site users and their needs.

Chance of a random web developer being able to do this – 5/10
Likelihood of web developer expecting to do this – 7/10

4. The commercial or design understanding of a Branding Consultant.

Web developers are not branding consultants.

There are branding firms that build websites, but they do it by employing brand strategists, branding designers and a variety of web development skills.

Your web developer will not be a brand consultant. Even if he or she happens to have the graphic skills to design a logo, that does not mean they have the experience or insight to look at your brand, or to create a new brand, taking into account your sector, markets, competition and perhaps existing brand portfolio.

Chance of a random web developer being able to do this – 0/10
Likelihood of web developer expecting to do this – 2/10

5. The visual judgement of a Graphic Designer.

Web developers are not graphic designers.

Think of it like houses. Architects design them. Builders build them. Painters and decorators add the finishing touches.

It’s far from impossible to find a web developer (especially what’s known as a front-end developer) with graphic design skills. But it’s far from a given, and the technical skillsets required to build a site are a world away from the aesthetic sensibilities required to decide on the fine points of its look and feel.

Some outstanding developers do not have the faintest idea about graphic design. So it’s best not to ask them to style the site, design a logo, create graphics or any of the other tasks that rightly belong to a trained designer.

Chance of a random web developer being able to do this – 3/10
Likelihood of web developer expecting to do this – 3/10

6. The visual narrative or technical skills of a Photographer/Illustrator/Film Director/Picture Researcher.

Web developers are neither photographers nor picture researchers.

A great deal of the impact and feel of a website comes from the way it looks, and photography or illustration very often play a big part in this.

If your site is an e-commerce site, or a property site, for example, then you will need to provide your catalogue/inventory images to the developer as a library or possibly feed from your management software.

But if you’re not an e-commerce site, or even if you are, your site look and feel may well require photographic or illustrated images to set its visual character.

These have to be taken, or drawn or, possibly, sourced from an image library.

In any case, it’s the job of a photographer, illustrator, picture researcher or possibly a designer, and while any individual web developer may have some skill in these areas, there’s no reason at all why they should have.

What’s more, it’s very unlikely that they will be expecting to spend time on this as a part of the fee they have agreed with you for development.

By the same rule, developers are not video directors. Owning a camera and editing software does not impart the skills to design a film that will tell a story clearly, succinctly and effectively.

Chance of a random web developer being able to do this – 2/10
Likelihood of web developer expecting to do this – 1/10

7. The psychological understanding of an Interface Designer.

Web developers are not interface designers. (Or at least, they’re not guaranteed to be.)

Designing a user interface is a particular skill that falls within the domain of web development. This is not principally aesthetic design. This is the design of your site’s usability: arranging and coding the elements of the site in such a way as to ensure a navigable and engaging experience for users.

Now some web developers are strong on this, either through formal training or, more often than not, through experience.

But do not take it for granted, especially if working with a solo developer, that he or she can do this.

Ask to see and play around with some of their previously completed sites if you’re in doubt.

Chance of a random web developer being able to do this – 6/10
Likelihood of web developer expecting to do this – 7/10

8. The server admin understanding of a Server Administrator.

Web developers are not server administrators.

A critical part of developing and optimising web sites is being able to configure and make adjustments to the web server hosting the site, which may be yours or may be rented in whole or part from a hosting company.

Your web developer may be an absolute whizz at doing anything and everything that could be required on the server.

Or he or she may have no idea at all about this.

Chance of a random web developer being able to do this – 4/10
Likelihood of web developer expecting to do this – 6/10

9. The marketing knowledge or sales skills of a Copywriter.

Web developers are not copywriters.

Working out the content of your website, and writing the copy to present your information in an organised, accessible and engaging way, or in a way that will persuade people to buy, is a complex and skilled job done by a copywriter or, in some cases, the less skilled ‘content writer’.

While many developers can knock in a line or two of copy here or there to help users get around a site, yours will have neither the ability, nor the time, to write your content. (Keep in mind that writing a 20 page site can easily take an experienced copywriter 2 full working weeks.)

One other thing to watch out for.

Be careful of developers offering to “get a copywriter” to write your site for you. It’s unlikely that the individual in question will be an experienced working copywriter. They are very likely to be a friend of the developer who feels they “can write”, and there’s a very high chance that you will be disappointed with the outcome.

Chance of a random web developer being able to do this – 1/10
Likelihood of web developer expecting to do this – 0/10

10. The specific, empiric knowledge of an SEO Specialist.

Web developers are not SEO engineers.

Building a website, and optimising a website to give it its best chance of ranking well in search results are entirely different areas of expertise.

They are certainly not unconnected, but because a developer has the skills required to build a site does not in itself imply that he or she knows the first thing about SEO.

An averagely bright developer should build any site along basic principles conducive to good search performance. But that simply means they give the site the capability of performing well. Making it do so calls for painstaking and ongoing work.

Chance of a random web developer being able to do this – 3/10
Likelihood of web developer expecting to do this – 2/10

11. The ‘different knowledge entirely’ know how of an IT Consultant.

Web developers are not IT consultants.

If there are issues to resolve relating to your web hosting server, some developers will be able and willing to deal with these and others will not.

But it is no way a part of either your developer’s skillset or responsibility to resolve issues relating to your email servers or back office systems, except where he or she has agreed to integrate these to the new site.

Expect grumpiness and short shrift if you try to extend your developer’s task with matters of this kind.

Chance of a random web developer being able to do this – 2/10
Likelihood of web developer expecting to do this – 1/10

12. The coding skills of an expert PHP (or other web functionalisation language) Programmer.

A web developer may have, but will not necessarily have, any actual programming skills.

Designing and building websites, especially in an age of WordPress themes, libraries of customisable site templates and complete sitebuild platforms can actually be done with little or no real programming ability.

It’s a bit like taking three items of food out of the freezer, heating them up and presenting the result as a meal. In many situations the ability to do that will get you through.

But in almost every site (even one being built using one of the approaches I’ve mentioned), there will be bits of customisation here or there that require a little programming. It may not even be very complex programming. But a developer still needs to know how to do it.

The problem is that not all developers do know how to do this. Though very many have at least some programming skills, there is no shortage of people working as solo web developers who have absolutely none.

Chance of a random web developer being able to do this – 7/10
Likelihood of web developer expecting to do this – 8/10

Where does that leave you, then?

Well… just needing to be realistic.

If you have business issues that need resolving, sort them out yourself or get properly qualified help before you start to build your site.

When you’re planning your site structure, by all means consult your developer, but work with him or her to make certain that the shape of the site being planned adds up to you.

If you need branding work done, or need graphics or photography originated, again it’s fine to discuss these with the developer, but be ready to pay for someone else to do that work for you – even if that’s through the developer.

As for everything else (content writing, SEO etc), recognise that these are all additional tasks, requiring the time of individual specialists, and be ready to pay for that.

In the end, if you find there are a large number of skills needed yet you really want a one-stop shop development, then you should probably go and talk to a larger development company. They don’t have to be huge, and they don’t have to cost a fortune.

Even a four-person team is likely to possess, collectively, more of the skills you require than any one person alone.


The 9 Big Stresses of Freelance Life.

We all know and love the benefits of being freelance.

But freelance life has its drawbacks, too, and stress from a range of causes and situations is high on the list.

So here are 9 big stresses of freelance life… along with tips for beating them.

1. “Where will my next job come from?” freelance stress.

Worrying about how you’ll get your next project can be stressful, however long you’ve been a freelancer. Illogical as it is, the feeling that, if things go quiet for a few days, you will never work again, is extremely common.

The answer is to develop and manage a proper, organised, multi-channel marketing strategy so that you know, even if it goes a bit quiet, that your marketing engine is working away in the background. With this in place, you can remind yourself, even if your phone is not ringing, that the prospecting method that has always brought you work previously is hard at it and will, soon, bring you your next assignment. Remind yourself to take a long view. We all get quieter periods and busier periods. Take a view over the last year, rather than the last month, and see how close you are to your target number of days worked.

2. “Can I turn this into a staff job?” freelance stress.

For most freelancers, freelance is a way of life and we absolutely don’t want, and wouldn’t take, a staff position again. But for some it’s an interim way to pay the bills until a new employed role comes along. If that’s the case for you, then worrying about how likely your freelance booking is to lead to a permanent job offer can be stressful.

The best way to beat this is to be absolutely clear in your own head what you are and why you’re there, so far as the employer is concerned. Don’t go in expecting your freelance position to turn into a staff job. Keep in touch with your network, and keep your marketing active all the time you’re there. That way, when you’re booking ends you’ll have somewhere else to move on to. At some point, somewhere you go freelance may indeed offer you a staff role, and if you want it you’ll be able to accept it. But if you don’t start off with that possibility in your mind, you won’t stress about trying to make it happen.

3. “Do they like me here?” freelance stress.

If you’re working in house, either at an agency or an end client, worrying about whether you’re being accepted by the staff team can be stressful.

‘Acceptance’ stress is a self-esteem thing. Worrying that the in-house team don’t like you, might resent you, or might think you’re no good, are all normal. But they need dealing with. Remind yourself of the in-house jobs you’ve completed in the past. Recall successes, compliments and feedback you’ve received. Remind yourself of tangible evidence (awards, testimonials etc) of your professional competence. And remind yourself of your successful personal relationships in past staff or freelance roles. If you’ve got along well with colleagues in all prior jobs, there’s no reason why this one should prove different.

4. “How will I live without these guys?” freelance stress.

If you’re working in house for any length of time, you’ll form relationships. These can be extremely stressful to let go of once your booking ends. It’s not that you can’t carry on seeing these people socially. But the feeling that you’ve been robbed of people you were enjoying sharing your day with can be hard to manage.

The way to beat this is to protect yourself emotionally from the moment you arrive. Make friends. But remember that you will leave and they will stay. Be professional, likeable and helpful, but look forward to moving on. Enjoy that you don’t have to worry long term about their office politics.  It’s part of the pleasure of freelance life.

5. “I’m worried about money” freelance stress.

We all want enough money to pay our rent or mortgage, feed and clothe ourselves, pay the bills, have fun, take vacations and, ideally, manage to save a little. Worrying about whether you have enough, or will have enough next week, is stressful.

The best way to destress over money is to build up a healthy reserve. That way, if your income slows at a certain point, you’re not worrying about being able to pay your bills. 

Almost as valuable in avoiding worrying, however, is to know you have a clear and up to date picture of your finances at all times. If you know exactly how much you have, how your bank account looks, what money is owed to you and when it should come in (or can be chased), you’ll feel in control and less inclined to panic.

If you use a cloud based book keeping platform that integrates live with your bank account (like QuickBooks, XERO – which I use, Freeagent or Freshbooks) you get the peace of mind of being able to see and manage your invoices, quotes, receipts and purchases in real time with 100% certainty. It’s very reassuring as well as incredibly empowering. More information. Less stress.

6. “People owe me money” freelance stress.

People pay late. Or don’t pay at all until you hound them. Chasing up payment is time consuming. As a freelance, you could probably do with having the cash in sooner rather than later. And you could almost certainly do without the hassle of chasing up late payers.  It all adds up to a big stress.

Being methodical and keeping calm are the best ways to take the stress out of this. You will get paid. It’s not personal, and it’s not a slight. It’s simply that some companies pay late and others don’t pay until you become so much of a nuisance that it’s easier to pay you than deal with you. Don’t get angry. Don’t threaten things you can’t afford to implement. You’re in the right when chasing up an invoice that’s overdue, so be calm, confident and polite. And ruthlessly persistent.

7. “I haven’t got enough time to do everything” freelance stress.

When you are freelance, you have two jobs: running your business and doing the work. Running your business itself entails lots of different things, from looking after your accounts to writing your blog and doing your marketing. Feeling like you have more to do than you can possibly complete on time is hugely stressful.

Planning, as in so many things, is the key to destressing this. The first instinct when you have a thousand things to do is to try to do all of them at once, or a bit of lots of them all on the same day. Don’t. List the tasks under sensible headings. Highlight those that really do require immediate attention. Split the remainder into  ‘Needs doing very soon’ and ‘Can actually wait a bit.’ If it’s obvious you’re going to let someone down, call or email and negotiate a time extension. Then start to clear your ‘immediate’ tasks by working through them  one after the other. If they’re short, do rotating blocks of a few hours on each task at a time, so you move several jobs forward in a day, rather than just one.

8. “I’m on holiday…and I shouldn’t be” freelance stress.

Being freelance is demanding and tiring. So when you get to take a holiday, you need to be able to enjoy it. But it’s really common to stress that you shouldn’t have taken a break at all.

Stand back. Working is an element of your life, not its sole point. If you’d like to avoid stressing over this  make sure, before you take your holiday, that you’ve finished everything you’d promised to complete. Check that your finances are in reasonable shape to cover not earning during the holiday and, ideally, get a task lined up for when you return. And don’t spend your holiday reading email. I restrict myself to a run through my inbox before breakfast, and another before dinner. And I reply only to emails that specifically and urgently need a response.

9. “I’m ‘always on'” freelance stress.

One huge stress, and possibly the most dangerous of all. If you work freelance, it’s easy to drift into an ‘always on’ mentality. You are working, or thinking about work or about organising your business, 24 hours a day.

Define your working day, and know when it’s over. Same with your working week. Evenings and weekends have a purpose, and if you allow your freelance work, business admin and worrying to eradicate them you have no opportunity to clear your head, chill out or regain perspective. We all sometimes work late. We all sometimes book a job across a weekend because that’s when our client needs the work done. But it’s when the background rhythm of your work life is running 24/7/365 that the stress is a danger.

Remember, one of the huge advantages of being freelance is that we are free of the stresses associated with employment.

Whatever you do, avoid replacing one set of pressures with another set of your own making!

What’s a Junior Copywriter?


You’ve seen an ad for a Junior Copywriter. And you’re wondering what, exactly, that is.

So let’s shine some light on it for you by looking at it in two halves: ‘Junior’ and ‘Copywriter’.

I’m going to do ‘Copywriter’ first. If you’re not exactly sure what a ‘Junior Copywriter’ is, it’s perfectly possible that you’re not too sure what a Copywriter is at all.

So what’s a Copywriter?

A Copywriter is a person who writes ‘copy’. ‘Copy’ is the word that’s been used for decades to describe the written part of advertising and marketing material. The headlines and text of magazine and newspaper ads. The slogans on billboards. The scripts of TV and radio commercials.

More recently, it’s extended to include the digital media writing we call ‘content’: the written parts of websites, social media posts, email marketing and so on.

The easiest way to explain what a Copywriter does is to say only that they write on behalf of a business or organisation, and that the job of what they write is almost always to help the business or organisation sell its products or services, or convince people of the value of whatever it does.

Copywriters are used by clients because of their ability to convince people, by using words, to do things. And we do that in return for payment.

Like a lawyer, a copywriter doesn’t need to like or believe in her client. Her job is simply to tell her client’s story for them in as clear and/or persuasive a way as possible.

Copywriters and ideas.

If you’ve ever seen the TV show Mad Men, you’ll have seen what it was like to be a Copywriter working in advertising in the United States in the Golden Age of copywriting.

But the kind of copywriting in that show, where the Copywriters dreamed up clever marketing campaigns for big corporations, is just one particular kind of copywriting.

It’s called ‘conceptual’ or ‘creative’ copywriting. Thinking up a powerful, relevant idea, rather than writing a lot of words, is the most important part of that kind of copywriting.

There are still Copywriters who do that today, mainly in advertising agencies.

But there are many Copywriters who are less ‘creative’. They do work that is less about coming up with ‘a big idea’, and more about providing information, presenting a case or setting out an argument.

Both kinds of work are copywriting, and a good Copywriter is able to do both. But many brilliant ‘creative’ Copywriters are not great at dealing with complicated arguments and writing long pieces of text (‘long copy’, as it’s called). Equally, lots of excellent and in-demand Copywriters who can deal with complicated long copy are not very good at coming up with ideas!

If you’re thinking of applying for a ‘Junior Copywriter’ position, it’s very likely that the job will not be for a person to concentrate on coming up with ideas. But that doesn’t mean it wouldn’t be a good job, and it could open the door for you to move on later to a more creative position.

Where do Copywriters work?

In principle, a job for a Junior Copywriter could exist anywhere that they use Copywriters.

Such employers divide loosely into two camps. Some Copywriters work ‘in house’ or ‘client side’. This means they are employed by a company that is in some kind of business, to work on helping that company create its marketing.

So an in-house Copywriter might work for a bank or insurance company, or a real estate or construction firm. Or they might work for a pharmaceutical or healthcare firm, an engineering or software business, or a leisure or travel business. Or they might work in a public sector organisation, like a University or Local Government department.

Copywriters who do not work ‘in house’ work ‘agency side’.

This means you work in some kind of marketing company. This could be an advertising agency, digital marketing agency, web development company, social media company etc. The agency will have a set of client companies who are like the companies listed in the previous paragraph. The agency will look after some or all of the marketing for each of its clients.

So in a client company that employs Copywriters in-house, only a few people’s jobs will be to work on marketing. (Everyone else who works there will be employed to do whatever that company does for its customers.)

But in an agency, almost everyone will be a marketing person of one kind or another, working to help the agency’s clients.

How being a Junior Copywriter is different in an agency to client side.

For a Junior Copywriter, the opportunities in these two kind of companies will be quite different.

If you take an in-house role as a Junior Copywriter, you’ll gain experience solely of the business of the company you work for. And there may not be anyone in the company with real expertise as a Copywriter to help you develop.

If you take a job as a Junior Copywriter in an agency, in contrast, you’ll get to work on lots of different clients, in different business areas. There will also be some more experienced copywriters, and a Creative Director, able to help you learn how to do the job properly.

What qualifications do you need to be a Junior Copywriter?

Well this is the good part. You don’t really need any. It’s absolutely possible to leave school at the lowest age permitted wherever you live, and to get yourself a job as a Junior Copywriter.

You don’t have to have a degree from university, or passes in particular subjects in high school.

Having said that, education is a good thing, and most employers like to take on smart, enthusiastic people who seem keen to learn.

So, while there are no hard or fast requirements, I’d say that to get hired as a Junior Copywriter you’re going to need to show that you can write clearly and confidently in good English.

You will also need to be able to show that you have good, all round intelligence; an interest in the world and in business, and an awareness of what’s going on.

If you’ve been to college or university, and so have an undergraduate degree or equivalent, then there’s no particular subject that you need to have studied.

But clearly you will be expected, given your age and education level, to be able to write well and organise your thinking. You’ll need to be able to show some practical evidence of your interest in writing. A blog. Some magazine articles. A few vlog or short video pieces. To have nothing you’ve written at all to show is likely to go down badly.

Apart from that, anything you know, or can find out, about business and marketing will help you show why you’re a good choice.

What will you be doing if you get hired?

So if you land a job as a Junior Copywriter, what can you expect to be doing?

If you join either an agency or a client side employer as a Junior Copywriter you should expect, at the beginning, that you’ll be doing:

  • simple copywriting tasks
  • copywriting tasks no-one else wants or has time to do,
  • a fair amount of other tasks that don’t seem to be related to copywriting at all.

You’ll probably do a lot of social media posting. There’s nothing wrong with this. Use it as an opportunity to develop your marketing understanding, as well as your writing skills, and to show your boss that you’re capable and keen.

The important thing to realise is that being a Junior Copywriter is a stepping stone to becoming a Copywriter. That’s an interesting and well paid career that you’ll be able to work at for years to come. So be patient, get a smile on your face and say “Yes” to whatever you are asked to do.

Try to get experience on as many different kinds of work as you can.

And, if you are not the only Copywriter in the company, ask whether a more experienced Copywriter can be your mentor. If you have such a Copywriter to review your work and explain what’s good and what’s bad, you’ll progress much faster.

Avoid ‘Junior Copywriter & Something Else’ jobs.

Try to avoid applying for roles that appear to be looking for a combined ‘Receptionist and Junior Copywriter’, or ‘Data Entry Clerk and Junior Copywriter’.

The attempt to combine a ‘Copywriter’ role with positions like this tells you that the company does not really understand what a Copywriter is. It also suggests they won’t be placing a great deal of value on the role once you’re in.

They actually need a receptionist and think it may be possible to get someone to blog as well.

There’s nothing wrong with this if you like the sound of that balance. But if you’re considering a Junior Copywriter role to get you started on the road to being a Copywriter, it may be a dead end.

What can you expect to learn?

In even just a few months as a Junior Copywriter, you should be able to learn a basic grounding in marketing. Ask questions and people will be happy to tell you things.

You should also expect to learn about the business or businesses for which you write. (If you’re working in an agency that will be a few businesses, while if you’re client side it will usually just be the business of the one company you work for.

You should also begin to learn about the various media and platforms for which you’re writing copy. Make sure you get the opportunity to try writing blog posts as well as social media, say, or a brochure as well as newsletters.

All of these items have different roles and relationships with their readers. The more of them you get to try your hand at, the more you’ll learn.

What can you expect to earn as a Junior Copywriter?

How much you get paid as a Junior Copywriter will vary depending on a number of  factors including:

  • where you live,
  • whether you go to work in an agency or client side,
  • what your age and educational background are like when you get hired.

Being a Copywriter is a professional role, however, within marketing.

So you should normally expect to be paid better than somebody joining in a general or admin role, say, and perhaps the same as a Junior Sales Exec or Account Manager.

Take a look on recruitment site Glassdoor to get an idea about salaries.

The important thing to keep in mind is that Copywriting is relatively well rewarded as a career. Should you build a strong reputation or go into a particularly lucrative area such as advertising, you’ll earn a very good income once you graduate from Junior Copywriter to Copywriter.

How long will you be a ‘Junior’ for?

It’s impossible to say exactly how long you. This will depend on whether you joined the company with some prior copywriting experience, or as an absolute beginner.

Unlike some careers, copywriting has no professional examinations to take after which you automatically lose your Junior role title. So it usually comes down to how quickly you learn, become genuinely useful and require less watching over.

It may also come down to how willing your employer is to promote you, which will usually involve paying you more.

If you started as a Junior Copywriter with no previous experience, worked hard and progressed well, after two years you could probably apply for a job somewhere else as a Copywriter, rather than as a Junior.

If they were looking for someone with lots of experience you may not yet qualify. But by that time you should be able to work as a less experienced, but fully functioning, member of their team.

What should you ask if you go for a Junior Copywriter interview?

If you get as far as being offered an interview for a Junior Copywriter role, get along and talk about yourself in a confident and friendly way. Just avoid suggesting that you know all about being a Copywriter.

If you’re going into anything in a junior position, it’s best to recognise that your knowledge is limited.

Being keen to learn and pleasant to have around will be enough to get you hired.

When the interviewer asks if you have any questions, however, here are some things to ask:

• Will there be someone to mentor me and actually take the time to critique my work?

• Apart from mucking in as anyone would from time to time, will I be expected to do anything other than copywriting as part of my normal day to day job?

• Will there be the opportunity for me to progress from Junior Copywriter to Copywriter? If so, how long can I expect it to take before that happens if I’m doing well?

• Will I get a chance to try working in different situations and on different kinds of copywriting task, or will I be doing the same thing for as long as I’m here? (Remember, you learn far less doing the same thing every day than trying your hand at different things.)

Junior Copywriter? Get that job and start off on the road to being a Copywriter.

That’s just about all you need to know.

A Junior Copywriter is just a Copywriter in the making.

Give it your best effort. Read up about marketing and business in general.

And understand that it’s a business skill that uses some creativity.

It is absolutely not a creative free-for-all like writing novels, movie scripts or poetry.

Yeah. You can quote me.


“So… how much does copywriting cost?”

Well… I quote a lot of jobs. Maybe three of four a day. And I’ve been quoting three or four jobs a day for years. So I’m fairly good at it.

I take time and care to analyse each project requirement, quantifying the time I’ll need to do every aspect of the job, start to finish, including supporting all revisions through to sign off.

And I have a formula that I then apply to take account of what kind of work the task involves, how rare the skills it requires are, who the client is and what use the work is going to be put to in their business.

I then set out all of this information clearly, showing how I’ve used the set of variables to calculate the amount per day at which I’m offering to rate the time I’ve assessed.

And I send that to the prospective client.

How much does copywriting cost?

Now many times, the quote will work absolutely fine for the client. Maybe 75% of the time.

And sometimes it will not quite work, but they’ll be professional enough to mail or call and negotiate me down a little. I have no problem with that. So long as they have a sensible budget, I’m happy to try to meet them on this.

There are occasions, too, on which my quote will just be too high, and the client will tell me so, and I won’t get the project.

All of the above are fine. Everyone endures all of the above as a normal part of quoting.

But there’s another kind of response, too.

Sometimes I’ll quote, pitching a fair price for doing a good job.

Then I’ll get a sort of triumphal reply that says, “I’ve had several quotes that are all much lower than yours, and won’t be taking this any further.”

Presumably, this is meant to stun me. To make me regret my dreadful greed, which has justly cost me the opportunity to work on the project in question.

To advise me that others are offering to do what I have proposed a professional consulting level fee for, for far less, and that I should thus be aware that I have been rumbled.

The only thing is, this kind of email doesn’t make me think any of these things.

Finding a lower quote isn’t hard. And usually isn’t smart.

What it actually makes me think is:

“It’s a shame that you are someone who is about to entrust the marketing of your business to a person who does not understand the work that is actually entailed in your task.”

Or, “Oh. What a pity that it hasn’t occurred to you that the reason the person to whom you are about to entrust your marketing works so cheaply is because they don’t have the skills to be able to charge a proper rate for their work.”

Or, “It’s so regrettable that you are going to entrust your marketing to someone who charges at a rate indicative of their inexperience, which will mean lack of business knowledge, lack of commercial understanding and the need for you to waste your time on teaching them the basics of your business and, quite possibly, business in general.”

Sometimes it makes me think, “It’s just unfortunate that you have no clue what you’re doing, and no experience in buying what you’re buying, and so just when you’d benefit from professionalism and experience you’re inclining towards false-economy and risk.”

On occasion, it even makes me think, “Oh, no! You are someone who can’t work out that the person who has quoted you three days of fee for a task that involves writing, say, fifty pages of a website, cannot conceivably be a person who knows how to do that job properly, or who is planning to do it with care and craft.”

Copywriting isn’t a commodity. Not all writers have equal value.

You see where I’m coming from?

The person who tries to tell me they won’t be requiring my help and wants me to see how much better they’ve done for themself by finding a quote much lower than mine, actually demonstrates nothing of the kind.

Instead, they tell me only that investing less, rather than making more, was as far as their vision would allow them to see.

And they send me away genuinely saddened by their lack of foresight; and by the commercial opportunities they will miss.

Write your own web content. My Dozen ‘Do’s.


The core of your user experience. Way ahead of look and feel. Making sure you have well written web content is the single most important element in making your site perform for you.

Your written web content drives your SEO.

It has to hold people on your site when they first arrive, preventing them ‘bouncing’.

It has to engage them, reassure them, inform them, befriend them, persuade them and, ultimately close them.

So here are my Dozen ‘Do’s to help you. Whatever kind of site you’re writing, these should help.

But before you get into these, let’s take a minute and look at 3 big web copywriting mistakes to avoid.

3 big web content writing mistakes to avoid.

For me (and I write web content for 100 or so sites every year) the three big mistake to avoid are:

  • Cramming too much copy into your pages. Don’t. Search engines like 300 plus. But a page should be as long as it needs to be, Sometimes it really is all over after two sentences. As a rule of thumb, though, I think of a short page as being around 80 words, an average one as being 300, and a long one as 700 or so.
  • Not thinking properly about the elements that make up the page, and what the individual roles of these are and how the copy for each should work.
  • Getting the tone of voice wrong – too stuffy, too corporate, too formal, too informal, too pompous, too vague, not professional enough.

Keep clear of these, and your web copy will be off to a great start.

My 12 tips for writing good web content.

So here are my Dozen ‘Do’s.

  1. Be clear about what each page is about. At the planning stage, for every page in the site, pre-compile a carefully thought through list of bullet points that detail what that page’s main copy section will cover.
  2. Think about how the page templates work. A page isn’t just the main copy block. It has other elements that will help you get across everything you want to say, and take people to where you want them to go. They may or may not be unique to the page you’re writing, but you need to think about all of them carefully.
  3. Be clear on page purpose. Some pages are there to inform. Some to build trust. Some to sell. Some to entertain. Decide what the job of the copy is and then write for that purpose.
  4. Underestimate your reader. People aren’t usually upset to have what they already know confirmed. But they get lost when a subject is written about in a way that they can’t understand. It’s better to underestimate how much your reader might know about the particular subject.
  5. Don’t compromise your expertise. The greatest expert on a subject can and will explain it in simple terms, and that’s good. But simple doesn’t mean inaccurate. If you are writing B2B, or for expert consumers, make sure you use the language and glossary used by the profession, or by people with that interest. Otherwise your copy will make those readers feel the site lacks expertise and so credibility.
  6. Break the copy into short, interesting chunks. Break the subject into a few chunks with a separate heading – and perhaps graphic treatment – for each. A page of 500 words of copy, even with subheads, can look quite offputting. Four chunks of 100-150 words each is far more inviting.
  7. Write simply. It’s not only readers that read your content. It’s search engines, too. Both like short sentences, built using simple words in everyday use. Avoid complex subclauses. Things aren’t more valuable, of higher value or more ‘professional’ because you use unnecessarily complex language to describe them.
  8. Keep your writing natural and informal. If you have brand guidelines, read them once then forget them. Take a common sense approach to the brand, but mainly just write in written English that echoes spoken English. And in short, single sentence paragraphs.
  9. Don’t obsess on outmoded SEO ideas. Don’t try to write guessed keyterms into the copy. Write about the subject of the page naturally and informatively. Where you can include likely – or, even better, properly researched – search terms naturally only, do so.
  10. Have headlines, not just page titles. A site isn’t a card index. Write bold, confident and helpful headlines for each page, rather than just the two word title of the subject that was used on the sitemap. The headline is a piece of communication between the site and the reader. The page ‘Title’ (e.g. About Us or Our Services) is a piece of navigation info to help people (and search robots) find their way around.
  11. Remember the calls to action. Don’t be embarrassed to urge people to ‘Call now’ or ‘Get in touch’. It’s not pushy and it’s not ‘desperate’. But also write calls to action into the copy where they seem relevant, so they are a natural part of the content.
  12. Read and edit once it’s live. Copy feels totally different in a live site to how it feels on a copy draft. Make sure you have access via a CMS (or through developers so you can go back and edit once your copy is in the site.

So. Get to it and good luck.

And remember that the copy is never final! Go back and look at it whenever you have an opportunity and edit, update, improve. It’s the way.

How to leave your job and become a freelance copywriter.


For everyone who is a freelance copywriter, there are days when the security of employment looks incomparably attractive.

But if you’re employed, the idea of quitting your job and working for yourself as a freelance copywriter can look even more appealing.

If you’ve always been an employee, the desire to leave behind bosses, office politics and fixed hours for ever can be particularly strong.

But for lots of people in this position, the most frightening and challenging part of pulling this off isn’t really to do with writing, or with what they know about marketing, or even with how to go about finding work.

It’s to do with how you’ll be able to  organise your life to cope with the transition from the security of a regular salary to the insecurity of freelance project fees.

Like most challenges though, it looks less intimidating when you break it into chunks.

Step 1. Understand your situation

The first thing to do is take a cool, clear look at your situation, and in particular at your fixed costs, and see what you can reduce and what you’re stuck with.

Everyone needs a certain amount of money each month, and you need a clear idea of how much that amount is  for you before you walk away from the security out of your current job.

(Don’t be too sentimental about that security though. If you think about it, lots of employment for copywriters is actually fairly interim, anyway, meaning lots of writers have to go find a new role every year or two as it is.  So it’s really not that different to being a freelance copywriter to begin with.)

Whatever your monthly outgoing, there’s still no real reason to turn away from the idea of a freelance life.

You just need to be aware of what you’re putting at risk, so you can think about how you’ll cover yourself if things take longer to get going than you hope.

Step 2. Be realistic about what you need.

If you’re in your first job, maybe in your early to mid twenties, your costs each month are probably quite manageable.

You’ll maybe have rent and bills to pay, plus the cost of your food, clothes and entertainment. Even though that still mounts up to a decent amount for most people, it’s about as good a position as you’ll ever find yourself in.

What you’re being paid in your job probably isn’t all that much either.

So the amount you’ll need to make from copywriting to cover your costs and match your salary won’t actually be that high.

If you’re fifteen years into your career, on the other hand, you’ll have more of a challenge.

The commitments that most of us wrack up during a decade or more of comfortable employment mean that you may have a mortgage, loan repayments or even some dependents to think about. And that’s before you get anywhere near having any fun!

So if you’re going to turn your back on your salary, you’ll need to be able to hunt down and complete quite a lot of well paying copywriting to carry on hitting your target.

Step 3 – Write some copy for free

I usually figure that new plans need a year to get going.

It can be less, and sometimes it’s more, but a year is a fair crack at making something as big as a career transition happen.

So think about this. Let’s say you have a £24k salary.

And, to keep it simple, let’s also say you have a £24k overhead, but you would like to walk out the door and start a new career as a copywriter.

You need to ‘phase’ the transition.

Right now, the job is paying you £2k a month, and you have no income from copywriting.

But let’s say that next month you spend a bit of time trying to turn up some small copywriting work from family and friends? “Can I rewrite your website for free?” “Would you like me to write you a little brochure?”

That kind of thing.

If you hate the idea of doing anything for free, then you could try your hand on People Per Hour or Elance or a similar site, but without any track record at all, you may struggle even there to land anything.

And the point of this is not to earn. It’s to get together some samples of actual work you’ve done for live clients.

By the time the month ends, you’ll have made no money from copywriting, but you’ll still have your £2k from salary. And, just to be conservative, let’s say exactly the same happens the next moth as well.

Step 3 – Write some copy. Make a little money.

So, we’re now into the third month.

This time, you’d try to get one small assignment that you could do out of office hours, and maybe make £200 from.

So you’ll make £200 from copywriting and so need only £1800 of your salary to make up your £2k. (You’ll still be getting your full pay packet of course, so this month you’ll have £200 extra. Result!)

Step 4 – Getting to 50/50.

After that, you just keep going the same way.

You have to try to get yourself to the point, after six months or so, where you’re fairly consistently earning   £1000 a month from copywriting.

If you can, then you’ll be making half of your monthly need from copywriting.

It’s better not to overstretch though. You’ve got to be able to drum up the work consistently. If that seems to you like something you’ll have trouble doing (and it’s harder than the writing itself), then it’d be rash to walk out of your job.

If you do feel you’d struggle to hit your work target consistently, then you’ve uncovered the fundamental truth of all freelancing.

Actually doing the work is easy and enjoyable. That’s the part you love, and want to do. But getting the work in to begin with, week after week, is hard. It takes lots of time, can be a bit lonely and it calls for skills that have nothing to do with writing.

(However, if you’ve got a background in Sales, or in CRM, for example, you may find this less of a challenge.)

Step 5 – Quit your job. You’re a Freelance Copywriter.

One day, you’ll get to the point where you’re happy that you’re pulling in a fairly consistent amount of work each month, and your evenings and weekends are getting eaten up by it.

At this point, the only thing that’s really stopping you from making your full £2k target each month from copywriting is your job!

For as long as you’re doing it, there just won’t be enough hours for you to chase new work, bring it in and actually do it.

And this is when you have to be brave, tell your boss you’ve decided to try working for yourself, and hand in your notice.

There’s no getting away from it: it’ll be scary.

But you’ll have done everything you possibly can to pave the way out of employment and into freelance life.

Oh. One more idea.

During your transition year, it’s only sensible to try to save the money you earned from copywriting (while you were still getting a salary), along with anything else you can stow away.

That way you’ll have some money in reserve once you start your freelance life, should you find you hit a slow patch.

And that’s about it.

There are other ways you can make the move, and everyone’s circumstances are different. (You may be reading this thinking, “If only I only needed to make £24k!”)

But the point is that you’re really not trapped in employment.

Plan. And jump!

Copywriting Tips. 11 Great Things To Learn.


Convinced that being a copywriter is your true calling, but finding there’s a little more to it than you’d imagined? Don’t get disheartened. Here are 11 copywriting tips (and in particular for tips for aspiring copywriters): 11 Great Things To Learn that will stand you in good stead for ever.

1. Learn about marketing.

Copywriting is a commercially purposed business function. In the vast majority of cases the reason someone’s happy to pay you to do it is because what you do will help them, in some way, to sell their products or services. You really can’t be a good copywriter unless you learn as much as you possibly can about what marketing is and how it works. You’re not going to learn everything there is to know in a hurry. But you need to know enough to be able to contribute to your clients’ marketing efforts when you advise them, and when you’re actually writing for them.

2. Learn to write with the rhythms of natural speech.

Forget about writing within the conventions of whatever you think ‘good writing’ should be. Learn to write the way people speak. Business today – even in sectors like law and financial services – is far less formal than it used to be. People who read what you write have short attention spans and just don’t want to read stiff, formal text any more. Write well, but teach yourself to hear a voice speaking your copy as you write it. It may be a more or less formal, sophisticated or cultured voice, but the natural rhythms of speech will give you copy that’s easy to read and communicates clearly.

3. Learn to listen to a briefing.

The briefing you get from a client, whatever form you accept it in, gives you a lot of pointers as to how to go about doing the job. You need to learn to really listen to it, and to spot the subtext in what’s being said as well as the text itself. Clients often let slip little concerns or secondary objectives when they’re briefing you. Spotting them and knowing how to deal with them, or include them in the copy you write, will get you satisfied clients.

4. Learn to spot the things that are missing.

Many of the clients you’ll work with won’t be professional marketing people. They’ll be business owners. So writing a brief for a copywriter won’t be something they have experience of. Learn to go through what your client does tell you, and spot the things they’ve not told you but which could make a big difference to the copy you write. If it seems to you that they’ve not told you about some aspect of the business, or the context, and you want to know, then ask them. It may get you the piece of information that makes your copy properly convincing, or compelling or plausible.

5. Learn to focus on the story you’re trying to tell.

Every business has a pile of stories, and most businesses aren’t very good at separating them out. Learn to focus in on the specific story that needs telling. And learn to clear all the other bits of storyline out of the way. If the story you ought to be telling actually has multiple  components, that’s fine, but keep your eyes on the overall take out. When someone’s read your copy, they should be able to go off thinking… “This company could do this for me”, or “If I buy that it’ll take care of such and such“.

6. Learn to read what you write through someone else’s eyes.

What you know or think about something can be a positive danger when you’re writing copy. It’s vital that you learn not to assume that your level of knowledge or understanding about something is the same as your reader’s will be. It won’t be. They may be an expert, or they may know nothing about whatever you’re writing about. But your job is to see the subject through their eyes, not through your client’s , and certainly not through your own.

7. Learn to edit.

Editing is everything. No-one writes perfect copy, once through, straight off. Maybe the most valuable thing you can learn to do is edit your draft for cleaner, tighter copy with clearer communication in fewer words.

8. Learn to get an outcome.

Lots of copywriters write copy that rambles. Don’t do it. Learn to construct an argument, get in, deliver it and get out with the result that your client needs.

9. Learn to quote.

Quoting work isn’t about pulling a number out of the air, and it isn’t about trying to work out the highest fee you can possibly ask for and still get the job. It’s about working out how much you’d be happy to do the work for, though of course that can include thinking about what the work might be worth to that particular client. Learn to work out quotes consistently and accurately, so that you factor it every facet of the work you’ll have to do. Think about the time required to do the research, write and edit a draft and support the revisions. Think about any meetings you have to go to and the phone calls you’ll do. And think about the value of any intellectual property involved. Find a way to factor all these things in so that you can price up any job and, at the end of the month, find that you’ve earned however much you set out to earn.

10. Learn to understand.

Learn to make certain you really understand the subject you’re writing about, and the market surrounding it, and where your client fits into that, and where the reader fits into it.  You can’t get the copy right if you don’t really understand the ecosystem.

11. Learn to learn.

Learn to treat every project you do as a learning exercise. Every task, however brief or apparently dull, has a lesson to teach you.

When a client drags his feet on paying


Freelance copywriters, like freelancers in other industries, are generally small, self employing businesses.

As in any business, cashflowing is extremely important.

You need to keep the jobs coming in, you need to keep completing them and invoicing them, and you need the fees to keep coming through as a result.

Most copywriters work on either cash-on-delivery (you do the job, you invoice, they pay you) or 30 day terms (you do the job, you invoice, they pay you after 30 days).

It’s important for you to agree up front with every client which of these models you’re going to work to. (Many client companies say they pay suppliers at 60 or 90 days but, if you make clear that you are a freelance as opposed to a large concern which can afford to wait for its money, will usually be agreeable to paying you at 30 days.)

Whatever you agree on, make sure that your invoice clearly shows the date on which payment is due.

Now. Most clients, large or small, will pay you without trouble, when the payment is due. You may need to remind them that the due date has just passed, but that will usually do the trick. (In truth, some companies have active policies of not paying suppliers until they are chased.)

But what do you do when payment becomes weeks overdue, and a client shows no sign of paying up?

I’m assuming that the work was completed satisfactorily, and that the client has made no indication at any point of being dissatisfied or contesting that payment is due.

It’s happened to me only once or twice in all the time I’ve traded, but when it does I take a really tough line on this, and I’d advise you to do the same.

Mail all overdue payers 1-2 weeks after their due date, to remind them that payment is late. Mail again at weekly intervals for 2 more weeks, politely pointing out the increasing overdue period. After a month or so, if they haven’t paid, warn them by email that if payment isn’t recevied by a set date (usually another 2 weeks ahead), you will issue proceedings against them in the County Court.If the sum in dispute is under £5000, which will cover many freelance copywriting assignments, this can be treated as a Small Claim, and can even be done online.

After this, mail them again a few days before the date on which you plan to issue proceedings to tell them that if payment isn’t received “by Friday” proceedings will be issued.

If there is still no payment received, then you issue proceedings, either at the linked URL above or using paperwork from your local County Court. There is a small fee for doing this, but it’s reimbursable by your client on top of the money owed.

Once you’ve issued the proceedings, the Court will take it from there for you.

Email the client again to tell them that you have issued proceedings and that any further correspondence should only take place through the channel of the paperwork sent to both parties by the Court.

What happens next? My experience has been that, within a few days, you receive a formal notification that the client has informed the Court that he is sending you your money forthwith. Within a couple of days your cheque arrives and that’s the end of it.

The other possibility is that your client now reveals to the court his ‘reason’ for not paying. While this can happen, if it’s something the client has never previously raised with you, he’s unlikely to find it easy to sustain from here. After a little more toing or froing, my guess is that you’ll have your money.

A professional debt collector (yeah, scary!) with whom I spoke recently about this had a great way of looking at this.

He said that the money your client owes you is far less of an item on his agenda than it is on yours. The trick is to make it into an item on his agenda. Turn it into something he can’t avoid dealing with.

A registered delivery Service of Claim from the Court, supported by the prospect of a negative County Court Judgement, is usually enough to do that. Good luck.

Web content. Whatever happened to structure?


I could simply be getting grumpier. It’s likely. But I keep coming across the same bit of nonsense and I’m beginning to think that WordPress must be to blame.

I keep getting calls about from people who are having a new site built (and so need web content), but who have little or no idea what pages their site will have. Or how the pages will be organised. In fact, my distinct impression is that very many of them have no idea about anything at all about their new site, as the developer hasn’t yet told them.

A site needs a site map.

This is as true now as it was five years ago, a decade ago, and two decades ago.

Before you begin to build it, someone should work out what information the site will contain, and how this should best be grouped to help visitors to the site to use it. Even in an age of deep-linked web-content whose visitors arrive on superbly targeted pages precisely matching their search terms, how can it possibly be a good idea to have a developer start building a site for you without you even know what’s going into it?

And what kind of developer agrees to begin building a site without having discussed and agreed with his/her client what’s going into it?

I fear the answer is that it’s a WordPress developer. (Or a WordPress-minded developer, anyway.)

Don’t misunderstand me. I am as big a fan of WordPress as the next person. But it has encouraged the idea that planning a site need involve nothing more than loading WordPress, picking a Theme and starting to hit the ‘Add New Page’ button.

This results in the misunderstanding that a site is really just an ever-mounting pile of ‘Pages’, and that deciding how to group or relate these pages, and working out a homepage and other page templates so that these pages will be offered to visitors in a way most likely to get them to do whatever the site owner would like them to do, is a secondary concern to be dealt with later. Or never.

Come on, new website owners. Take responsibility for organising a site before you start commissioning web content. For I promise you that your web developer will not.

The problem you share with Selfridges


I don’t know whether you’ve ever been to Selfridges in the West End of London?

Selfridges has a lot of entrances. It has entrances all along its face on Oxford Street. There are 5 of them. Depending which of them you choose, you will enter the store to find yourself confronted by handbags, fragrances, fashion jewellery, watches or sunglasses.

It has entrances all along its face on Duke Street. There are 3 of those. Enter this way and you’ll be greeted by handbags or women’s fashion.

And there are 4 doors on its face on Orchard Street. These will present you, on entering, with jewellery and fine wine, a brasserie or the Food Hall.

It also has a car park, and 3 entrances which open directly from the car park into the store. Enter this way and you’ll be standing in the Starbucks in-store concession, or men’s fashion, or women’s shoes.

Now imagine being Head of Merchandising at Selfridges.

You could take the view that while you have 15 entrances, bringing people into the store face to face with 12 different kinds of merchandise, you aren’t going to give a second thought to any entrance other than the main one on Oxford Street because “That’s the Main Door”.

You could say that. You could just wish that everyone would come in through that door, because that’s the way you wish they would.

If you did that, you really wouldn’t need to think so hard about what you put inside all of the other entrances. You could place quite dull merchandise there, because no-one would be forming their first impression based on what they found there.

You wouldn’t have to worry so much about displaying good signage to help people find their way into the rest of the store from each of these places, because you’d be imagining that no-one was going to enter through these doors.

Your life would be easy…in your own little world where all your visitors come in through the door you have chosen for them.

But let’s do some maths. 15 entrances. If we guess that the grand main entrance on Oxford Street accounts for 30% of all entrances to the store, then the other 14 account for 70%. If you ignore those entrances and pretend everyone comes in by the front door, 70% of your visitors will be greeted by disarray, poor display and inadequate signage. They might not buy so much.

Now, fortunately, you are not the Merchandising Manager at Selfridges with a store full of visitors coming through 15 entrances to worry about each day.

But if you have a website, with customers finding their own way into it via a page chosen for them by Google in response to whatever they happened to search for, it might just pay you to think as if you were.